Life is short so we need to embrace life and love full-heartedly


As we age, most of us face times when we feel as if we are burdens on others, that we are not wanted, needed, or loved. This is pretty normal I believe, we tend to value our own worth by the actions, reactions, and words of others. As much as we all know that we shouldn’t rely on others to establish our self-worth, we still do to a degree. So when life gets hectic, overwhelming,, and full of distractions, those we love don’t always show us attention, and become irritable and stressed. We sometimes get the end of all the stressors in our loved ones’ lives, they unintentionally unload all the frustrations and stress on us.

This can lead us to believe that we are no longer loved, wanted, or needed in their lives. We must remember that everyone has stress and life can be challenging for us all. We need to put away our insecurities and help our loved ones. Once we are able to stop worrying over if they do or don’t love us or need us etc., then we can work on helping them through the turbulence that life loves to throw at us all. We love them, and more than likely they love us as well, they chose to be with us in the beginning or are our blood relatives and will continue to be by our side.

Wasting so much time and energy worrying about if you are loved, wanted, or if someone sees you as a burden is pointless. Instead, we should use all that time and energy on making life easier and happier for everyone involved. Love is supposed to be a shared experience, unconditional and selfless. Though it may occasionally dip and sway off track it should always return to its course. I say just love the person you love with all your heart and let the rest take care of itself, don’t waste your precious time on worry or doubts. Life is short so we need to embrace life and love full-heartedly.

Equality, Capitalism, and Social Programs.


Equality refers to the idea that all individuals should have equal opportunities and rights, regardless of their race, gender, socioeconomic status, etc. Capitalism is an economic system where the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit. Social programs refer to government initiatives aimed at providing support and assistance to individuals and communities in need, such as health care, education, and unemployment benefits.

The relationship between equality, capitalism and social programs can be complex and sometimes conflicting. Capitalism is often criticized for perpetuating inequality, as those with more resources and wealth tend to have greater opportunities and advantages. On the other hand, social programs aim to address inequality and provide support to those in need, but they can also be seen as a threat to capitalism by some who view them as government intervention in the market.

Ultimately, the balance between equality, capitalism, and social programs is a political and societal question that can vary greatly depending on cultural, historical, and ideological factors.

Democratic Republics and Equality

A democratic republic is a form of government where power is held by elected representatives and the system of government is based on democratic principles. Equality, as I mentioned earlier, refers to the idea that all individuals should have equal opportunities and rights, regardless of their race, gender, socioeconomic status, etc.

In a democratic republic, the principles of equality and democracy are often seen as intertwined and essential to the functioning of the system. The idea is that by having equal representation and equal voting rights, the government can better serve the needs and interests of all citizens.

However, the reality of equality in a democratic republic can be more complex. Issues such as unequal access to education, healthcare, and voting rights can still exist, and there may be groups that face systemic barriers to equal representation and equal treatment under the law. As a result, ongoing efforts to address and rectify these inequalities are often a central focus of democratic republics.

Democratic Republics and Capitalism

A democratic republic is a form of government where power is held by elected representatives and the system of government is based on democratic principles. Capitalism, as I mentioned earlier, is an economic system where the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit.

In a democratic republic with a capitalist economy, the government typically plays a role in regulating the economy and ensuring fair competition, while also protecting the rights of individuals and businesses. The democratic process allows citizens to have a say in these regulations and protections through their elected representatives.

However, the relationship between a democratic republic and capitalism can also be complex and sometimes conflicting. The pursuit of profit in a capitalist system can lead to economic inequality, which can undermine the principles of equality and democracy in a democratic republic. Additionally, regulations and protections put in place by the government to address these inequalities can sometimes be seen as interference in the market and can be opposed by those who prioritize capitalism.

Ultimately, the balance between a democratic republic and capitalism is a political and societal question that can vary greatly depending on cultural, historical, and ideological factors.

Democratic Republics and Social Programs

A democratic republic is a form of government where power is held by elected representatives and the system of government is based on democratic principles. Social programs, as I mentioned earlier, are government initiatives aimed at providing support and assistance to individuals and communities in need, such as health care, education, and unemployment benefits.

In a democratic republic, social programs can be seen as a crucial component of ensuring equal opportunities and promoting the well-being of all citizens. Through the democratic process, citizens can have a say in the creation and implementation of these programs, and elected representatives can be held accountable for their impact.

However, the funding and sustainability of social programs can also be a point of contention in a democratic republic. Some may view social programs as necessary investments in the well-being of society, while others may see them as burdensome and unnecessary government spending. The balance between these views can vary greatly depending on cultural, historical, and ideological factors.

Ultimately, the relationship between a democratic republic and social programs is complex and shaped by a variety of factors, including political and economic conditions, public opinion, and the priorities of elected officials and the citizens they represent.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the relationship between democratic republics, capitalism, and social programs is complex and multifaceted. While these systems and principles can be seen as essential components of a functioning society, they can also be in conflict with one another.

Equality is often seen as a fundamental principle of democratic republics, but it can be undermined by the pursuit of profit in a capitalist system. Social programs aim to address these inequalities, but they can also be seen as a threat to capitalism and a burden on the economy.

Balancing these competing interests and ensuring that all citizens have equal opportunities and protections is a continuous challenge in a democratic republic with a capitalist economy. The role of government and the interplay between these systems will continue to be a subject of political and societal debates, shaped by cultural, historical, and ideological factors.

Just some thoughts on U.F.O./U.A.P. and E.T.s


I always thought as a child that there was more out in the universe than just us humans far as life is concerned. I was an avid believer in UFOs / UAPs as well as a child. As I grew older I of course kind of put away such things as believing in little green men or at least I stopped thinking about that subject. Now as I am getting up in age my mind has begun contemplating the idea once again.

My way of looking at it is that with such a vast universe, having only 1 small blue planet with sentient life would be such a waste of space, and also believing we are the only intelligent life forms in the said universe is a tad bit arrogant. Far as the ancient alien theory goes, I do not totally subscribe to the notion that humans are so helpless they could not build anything on a grand scale like the pyramids. There is no reason for me to believe that we required help from some extraterrestrial source to build or achieve what we had in history.

I can not rule out the possibility that there was some influence or help from an extraterrestrial race, but I have not seen anything that proves to me that there was at this time. Sure some of the things humans have done in the past can be a bit perplexing due to the known technology that ancient people possessed during the time of such megalithic builds like the Egyptian pyramids. I believe we do not possess all the knowledge of what technologies and techniques the ancient humans may have had, I believe we just have a general idea of what they may have had.

I believe as we discover new technology and further our scientific knowledge we may discover how humans achieved what they did back in history. We also may discover life outside of our solar system and maybe even outside our spiral galaxy. Some want to think if there are other living beings out there in the universe that somehow would cause conflict with the religious community and their belief systems.

From one Christian’s point of view, I have not found anywhere in the bible where it says that there are no others in the universe, nor have I found where it had anything in it saying that there are others either. I just do not see what difference it would make if God were to have more than just one planet he created life on. Some may disagree with my opinion concerning this, but I still feel it is quite arrogant to think we are the only ones in the universe.

Now that the U.S. Government released videos containing what they call UAPs, it at least gives some credibility to the subject. You tie that together with the privatization of space exploration, we may see more money being available for scientific research of UFOs/UAPs and related subjects. Maybe the age-old stigma associated with UFO sightings and so on will be finally put behind us.

There are so many possibilities for the origins of the UAPs in the Videos released to the public. They could be extraterrestrial, Interdimensional, time travelers, or possibly even from earth. Experimental technologies of one nation or another, that either our government wishes not to disclose or is not yet aware of. The origin and purpose of the UAPs has yet to be determined or yet to be revealed to the public. One last possibility is that it is no more than a missinformation camaign by our governmet.

Just some thoughts on the subject from a average person, and just what was on my mind at the time.

Blessings and peace to all

Random Thoughts 1-24-23


This is the only life you are given to live in this time and space we occupy, so you should make the most of it. Life is a precious gift we have received and thus the lives of others are just as precious. How we go through this life, how we live, and how we treat others is solely up to each one of us. I would like to think that since we only have this one life we all would try to live it in harmony with each other and take care of each other as well.

But being the human beings we are, we tend to complicate things with our unbridled emotions and selfishness. We allow anger, hate, and fear to last longer than they were meant to, sometimes we even allow such emotions to rule our entire lives. For the most part, fear and anger are only meant to last for the moment that they were needed and then they are supposed to just turn off. Some of us tend to hold on to anger and fear so long that it becomes hate.

Forgiveness, is something we all need in our lives but tends to be one of the hardest things for most people to embrace. To forgive someone is just as beneficial to the forgiver as it is to the forgiven, some times even more so for the person who forgives. To forgive someone lets you free yourself from the hurt, anger and pain associated with the person you are forgiving. Holding a grudge eventualy causes you more pain and grief than you deserve.

Life is too fleeting and precious to waste time on fear, anger and other negitive emotions. We should try our best to live life with love, compassion and understanding while doing our best to help one another along the way. Enjoy the moment and worry little over the past and not worry about the future for it will take care of itself. Plan for that future but don worry about what it may bring. Live in the moment and be all you are meant to be.

Reflection, Retrospect and friends.


They say hindsight is 20/20, looking back on my life I realize I may have not always been the best person I could have been, I had done some of my best of friends wrong. Most of the time it was unintentional, neither the less it was still a bad thing. To anyone I may have done wrong in my past, I hope you can forgive this foolish man of his wrong doings.

Looking back I also realize how some of the smallest things I did do right helped some on their way in life. A few young teens made a successful life out of the technology industry after having a place to tinker around with computers etc. I will not claim any credit other than I gave them a place to sorta grow, it was all their talent and drive that made them the I.T. Specialists they are today.

I am proud of each and every one of them, though some of them have left our friendship in the past, it still makes me proud I had either played a very tiny part in their development or just got to watch them sprout from a seed to a seedling before the went off to become successful.

I too had freinds that helped me grow, a few that carried me a ways too when i was down and out. To those people I send the biggest thank you of all. I just wish I could repay those people, unfortunately financialy I am not doing as well as I wish I was and time and distance has caused us all to grow apart.

Even if I never became what I wanted to be, I am proud to had been some tiny part of some people’s starting point. It makes me joyful to see those teens grown up, with a family of their own and doing so well in life. I wish them a long, happy and successful future.

Random Thoughts 1/11/23


In the past few years, it has seemed like our once proud and wonderful nation has begun a downward spiral, what once was looked upon as the beacon of hope and once a leader in technology, science, and human rights has fallen into decline. Between the Sitcom, we call the federal government, Inflation, and the economic downturn there is very little hope for a quick recovery from the pandemic and the political nonsense that resembles a carnival sideshow.

Political parties lost the ability to govern democratically due to a combination of partisan politics and small factions in both parties seeking fame through soundbites and social media popularity. It is pretty obvious that most of what we see going on in congress is either a distraction created to keep us divided or it is a result of the poor quality of senators and house representatives within congress itself.

There is so much that needs to be addressed and fixed in our nation, we need both parties to put aside their differences and work for the people. More investigations only equals more tax dollars wasted and time wasted that should have been spent on dealing with the issues at hand. The new speaker of the house needs to show some grit and stand up against the extreme element in his party and show some true leadership. But then again Democats and Republicans alike need to return to a more moderate and centralized style of politics and/or governance.

I think the public has had enough of this division and inability to get things done in washington. Both parties are to blame for the mess we are in, the time for finger pointing is over and it is time to get back to work and do what is best for our nation and those that live in it. In the end it doesn’t matter if someone is liberal or conservitive, we all are citizens of the United States. We all matter and those in office were elected to represent not a portion of the population, they were elected to represent everyone in their state and in the nation as well.

Well this is my political rant for this month, I wish you all the best my friends. Be good to one another and be compassionate to all.

Tracking CO2 emissions from space could help support climate agreements


NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite can make precise measurements of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space. (NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Ray Nassar, University of Toronto

The central objective of the Paris Agreement is to limit Earth’s warming to well below 2 C above pre-industrial levels, but preferably 1.5 C.

This challenging task will require policies and tools to enable every sector of society to drastically reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to eventually reach net-zero.

Enacting the most effective and efficient strategies to reduce emissions starts with knowing in detail where, when and how much of these greenhouse gases we are emitting, followed by implementing emission reduction policies and tracking our progress.

Is it possible to track carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and emission reductions from space? New research from my group shows that it is.

Why CO2 matters

CO2 is the primary greenhouse gas driving climate change. Burning fossil fuels for electricity generation, heating buildings, industry and transportation has elevated the CO2 in our atmosphere well beyond natural levels.

Currently, CO2 emission reporting is mainly done by accounting for the mass of fossil fuels purchased and used, then calculating the expected emissions — not actual atmospheric CO2 measurements. The finer details about exactly when and where the emissions occurred are often not available, but more transparent monitoring of CO2 emissions could help track the effectiveness of policies to reduce emissions.

Today GPS satellites help us to get around, meteorological satellites track weather systems and communication satellites relay TV, internet and telephone signals. It is time we use satellites to help tackle the biggest challenge that humanity has ever faced — climate change.

Satellites for measuring CO2

A global network of ground-based CO2 measurements began in 1957 and now consists of over one hundred stations around the world. Accurate and precise measurements from these stations have revealed a lot about changes in global atmospheric CO2 and Earth’s overall carbon cycle, but we can’t place these stations everywhere on Earth.

Satellites can observe the entire planet. Those that measure CO2 in the lower atmosphere near Earth’s surface (where CO2 emissions and CO2 uptake by plants happens) first began making measurements in 2002. Since then, they have been getting better and better at doing it, but there have been setbacks along the way.

About a decade of effort by NASA went into developing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) satellite to make precise measurements of atmospheric CO2 across the Earth.

NASA's OCO undergoing development prior to launch
NASA developed the Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite to make precise measurements of atmospheric CO2 across the Earth. (NASA/JPL), Author provided

In 2009, OCO was lost due to a launch problem. After sustained advocacy for a rebuild of this important climate mission, NASA secured new funding to launch the OCO-2 satellite in 2014 and OCO-3 to the International Space Station in 2019.

The OCO missions were designed to improve our understanding of vegetation’s CO2 absorption, also known as the land carbon sink. But what about fossil fuel CO2 emissions?

A new way to verify CO2 emissions

In 2017, I led a research team that published the first study showing that we can quantify CO2 emissions at the scale of an individual power plant using OCO-2 observations.

Since OCO-2 was not designed for this purpose, its coverage and infrequent visits were inadequate for operational global CO2 emission monitoring, but we can still quantify emissions in select cases when the satellite passes close enough and gets a good cloud-free view.

OCO-3 is very similar to OCO-2, but has an additional pointing mirror that enables it to better map CO2 around targets of interest like the Bełchatów Power Station in Poland, Europe’s largest fossil fuel burning power plant and CO2 source.

A Power Station
Bełchatów Power Station, Europe’s largest fossil fuel burning power plant. (Shutterstock)

With ten clear views of CO2 emission plumes from Bełchatów imaged by OCO-2 and OCO-3 from 2017-2022 analyzed in our new study, we were able to determine emissions on those days.

European power plants report hourly power generation but only annual CO2 emissions. Power generation fluctuates with electricity demand and generating unit shutdowns (for maintenance or decommissioning) and CO2 emissions are expected to exhibit proportional fluctuations.

We confirmed this using OCO-2 and OCO-3 in our recent paper, which showed that satellite observations can track changes in facility-level CO2 emissions. This means that satellites can be used to verify (or refute) reported CO2 emission reductions that result from climate change mitigation — like mandated efficiency improvements, carbon capture and storage technology, etc.

OCO-3 observations of a CO2 emission plume from the Bełchatów Power Station in Poland on April 10, 2020 overlaid on Google Earth imagery.
A plume of high CO2 resulting from coal burning is evident down wind from the Bełchatów Power Station in OCO-3 observations. (Ray Nassar), Author provided

Emissions monitoring for the Paris Agreement

Our approach can be applied to more power plants or modified for CO2 emissions from cities or countries with OCO-2 and OCO-3. We can also try integrating the satellite observations with CO2 monitoring from the ground or aircraft.

While we are already working on this, advances will only be incremental until the launch of the European Commission-funded Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring Mission or “CO2M”. CO2M is comprised of two satellites, aiming to launch in late 2025.

These satellites will provide about 50 times as much coverage as OCO-2 and OCO-3 combined and will form the space component of Europe’s system for CO2 emissions Monitoring, Verification and Support (MVS).

CO2M will be a major advance, but just like successful global climate action, requires contributions from many countries. The long-term robust operational global monitoring of GHG emissions will need a constellation of satellites contributed by multiple countries as part of an integrated global observing system.

Hopefully, with new, more detailed and transparent tracking of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions to assess and guide us toward the most effective policies, society can achieve the emission reductions needed to reach net-zero in time.

Ray Nassar, Research Scientist at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), Adjunct Professor in Atmospheric Physics, University of Toronto

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Random Thoughts 12-13-2022


Elderly people are not disposable, they are the people who helped build this world you are enjoying now. Many of those we call elderly once built the cars we drive, and designed the buildings we live in. Some may have just cleaned the buildings we worked in or served coffee to our parents and grandparents before or after work. Heck, a good portion of the elderly is in the U.S. federal government and they even cast aside the elderly at times.

Seems like the focus is always on the children or the younger working-aged group of citizens when it comes to congress and our government. But then why should a senator who makes a 6 figure salary and has a guaranteed retirement from our federal government worry about social security or the welfare of the elderly citizens that still can vote and contribute to society through the experience they have and the wisdom they have gained.

My opinion is that if they want to cut the budget look to their own salaries and retirement packages, their perks for being in office, and the wasteful spending in the defense budget instead of trying to cut social security or veterans benefits. Cut out some of that pork barrel spending in bills passed, and do straightforward bills without all the little perks for their states that do nothing but gain them possible votes.

Don’t even get me started on how tired I am and probably most people are with the partisan bull that does nothing but keeps congress from getting anything meaningful or worthwhile done. Or how money from lobbyists keeps what the people want from being passed due to money coming before constituents to some people in congress.

No government is perfect, there is always some sort of corruption and/or under-the-table deal going on. Just wish those in congress would remember they are elected to represent all of the citizens not just the base of the party they are in or the lobbyists that paid them the most money. The Meaning of We the people of the United States in the constitution is that the government is for the people and by the people, not just one party, group, social group, or individual.

One of the problems is that being a senator or representative is seen as a career instead of a civic duty by many of them in office. They lost their way and serve money and party over the people who voted for them. Wonder if they would be different if they made minimum wage and couldn’t receive any money from lobbyists and if they had term limits similar to a president. Who knows, it is what it is and unless we get more politicians that do it for the people and not just for the party and money it will remain as it is.

More than likely Social security and other social programs that were created to help the less fortunate will be constantly underfunded and at threat of being sunsetted until there is some sort of change in congress. Sad those that worked all their lives and helped build America and funded the federal government will be considered as a burden on the government. Human lives should always be more important than party politics or satisfying the political base that got someone elected.

Well, that is the opinion of this near-retirement-aged man, agree or disagree it is what it is. I wish everyone Happy Holidays and pray we all can find peace and happiness in life.

Random Thoughts 12-12-2022


In my lifetime I learned that there are so many people allowed to separate themselves from each other. We use labels to differentiate ourselves from one another, what religion we believe, what color we may be, our political party, nationality, and sex or sexual preference. We all get too wrapped up in what makes us all different from one another and that keeps us from seeing what we all have in common. We all are human beings and I think almost every single one of us wants to live a happy and productive life.

Most of us do not seek out conflict nor find pleasure in the suffering of others and most would rather co-exist with everyone else in harmony. There is always a small percentage that thrives in a negative atmosphere and revels in the suffering of others. We can not avoid those types of people, all we can do is deal with them when they become a threat to others and when they are not a threat to others we need to find a way to not allow them to ruin our day.

I remember how my grandparents were towards other people, they never judged people by what they were labeled, but by how they treated others around them. They taught me to do the same, see a person for how they act, and treat others. That is who that other person is, not their political party, color, and so on. I think some people just want everyone else to be just like them, and if they are not that’s when the trouble starts.

Lately I myself have been dealing with the “you’re old and I’m young” labeling and the discrimination that comes with it. It baffles me, I never looked at elderly people as anything but people. Age does not diminish a person’s worth nor their ability to contribute to society. If anything, being older gives them a sort of wisdom, and insight into things that the younger generation has yet had time to gain.

I am not yet to that elderly age, but I am getting closer every day, and boy the perception of time sure speeds up as I get older. Well anyways, what I was getting at is that we need to ignore all the labels we put on people and focus more on how people treat one another and realize that we all have something to contribute to this world we live in. And that we all need to help one another through this life since it can be a real challenge sometimes.

Be good to one another, find forgiveness for yourself and others.

Scientists discover five new species of black corals living thousands of feet below the ocean surface near the Great Barrier Reef


Researchers discovered five new species of black corals, including this Hexapathes bikofskii growing out of a nautilus shell more than 2,500 feet (760 meters) below the surface. Jeremy Horowitz, CC BY-NC

Jeremy Horowitz, Smithsonian Institution

The Research Brief is a short take about interesting academic work.

The big idea

Using a remote-controlled submarine, my colleagues and I discovered five new species of black corals living as deep as 2,500 feet (760 meters) below the surface in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea off the coast of Australia.

Black corals can be found growing both in shallow waters and down to depths of over 26,000 feet (8,000 meters), and some individual corals can live for over 4,000 years. Many of these corals are branched and look like feathers, fans or bushes, while others are straight like a whip. Unlike their colorful, shallow-water cousins that rely on the sun and photosynthesis for energy, black corals are filter feeders and eat tiny zooplankton that are abundant in deep waters. https://www.youtube.com/embed/MYncyEIDr10?wmode=transparent&start=0 The team of researchers collected 60 specimens of black corals over 31 dives using a remotely operated submarine.

In 2019 and 2020, I and a team of Australian scientists used the Schmidt Ocean Institute’s remotely operated vehicle – a submarine named SuBastian – to explore the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Our goal was to collect samples of coral species living in waters from 130 feet to 6,000 feet (40 meters to 1,800 meters) deep. In the past, corals from the deep parts of this region were collected using dredging and trawling methods that would often destroy the corals.

Our two expeditions were the first to send a robot down to these particular deep-water ecosystems, allowing our team to actually see and safely collect deep sea corals in their natural habitats. Over the course of 31 dives, my colleagues and I collected 60 black coral specimens. We would carefully remove the corals from the sandy floor or coral wall using the rover’s robotic claws, place the corals in a pressurized, temperature-controlled storage box and then bring them up to the surface. We would then examine the physical features of the corals and sequence their DNA.

Among the many interesting specimens were five new species – including one we found growing on the shell of a nautilus more than 2,500 feet (760 meters) below the ocean’s surface.

A robotic arm grabbing a thin coral off of a rock.
Researchers used the robotic arm of their rover to collect over 100 samples of rare corals and brought them up to the surface for further study. Jeremy Horowitz, CC BY-ND

Why it matters

Similarly to shallow-water corals that build colorful reefs full of fish, black corals act as important habitats where fish and invertebrates feed and hide from predators in what is otherwise a mostly barren sea floor. For example, a single black coral colony researchers collected in 2005 off the coast of California was home to 2,554 individual invertebrates.

Recent research has begun to paint a picture of a deep sea that contains far more species than biologists previously thought. Considering there are only 300 known species of black corals in the world, finding five new species in one general location was very surprising and exciting for our team. Many black corals are threatened by illegal harvesting for jewelry. In order to pursue smart conservation of these fascinating and hard-to-reach habitats, it is important for researchers to know what species live at these depths and the geographic ranges of individual species.

A large, white, tree-like coral underwater.
Black corals don’t form large reefs like shallow corals, but individuals can get quite large – like this Antipathes dendrochristos found off the coast of California – and act as habitat for thousands of other organisms. Mark Amend/NOAA via Wikimedia Commons

What still isn’t known

Every time scientists explore the deep sea, they discover new species. Simply exploring more is the best thing researchers can do to fill in knowledge gaps about what species live there and how they are distributed.

Because so few specimens of deep-sea black corals have been collected, and so many undiscovered species are likely still out there, there is also a lot to learn about the evolutionary tree of corals. The more species that biologists discover, the better we will be able to understand their evolutionary history – including how they have survived at least four mass extinction events.

What’s next

The next step for my colleagues and me is to continue to explore the ocean’s seafloor. Researchers have yet to collect DNA from most of the known species of black corals. In future expeditions, my colleagues and I plan to return to other deep reefs in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea to continue to learn more about and better protect these habitats.

Jeremy Horowitz, Post-doctoral Fellow in Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Listen to the heart God blessed you with

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