Category Archives: Technology

Tracking CO2 emissions from space could help support climate agreements


NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite can make precise measurements of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space. (NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Ray Nassar, University of Toronto

The central objective of the Paris Agreement is to limit Earth’s warming to well below 2 C above pre-industrial levels, but preferably 1.5 C.

This challenging task will require policies and tools to enable every sector of society to drastically reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to eventually reach net-zero.

Enacting the most effective and efficient strategies to reduce emissions starts with knowing in detail where, when and how much of these greenhouse gases we are emitting, followed by implementing emission reduction policies and tracking our progress.

Is it possible to track carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and emission reductions from space? New research from my group shows that it is.

Why CO2 matters

CO2 is the primary greenhouse gas driving climate change. Burning fossil fuels for electricity generation, heating buildings, industry and transportation has elevated the CO2 in our atmosphere well beyond natural levels.

Currently, CO2 emission reporting is mainly done by accounting for the mass of fossil fuels purchased and used, then calculating the expected emissions — not actual atmospheric CO2 measurements. The finer details about exactly when and where the emissions occurred are often not available, but more transparent monitoring of CO2 emissions could help track the effectiveness of policies to reduce emissions.

Today GPS satellites help us to get around, meteorological satellites track weather systems and communication satellites relay TV, internet and telephone signals. It is time we use satellites to help tackle the biggest challenge that humanity has ever faced — climate change.

Satellites for measuring CO2

A global network of ground-based CO2 measurements began in 1957 and now consists of over one hundred stations around the world. Accurate and precise measurements from these stations have revealed a lot about changes in global atmospheric CO2 and Earth’s overall carbon cycle, but we can’t place these stations everywhere on Earth.

Satellites can observe the entire planet. Those that measure CO2 in the lower atmosphere near Earth’s surface (where CO2 emissions and CO2 uptake by plants happens) first began making measurements in 2002. Since then, they have been getting better and better at doing it, but there have been setbacks along the way.

About a decade of effort by NASA went into developing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) satellite to make precise measurements of atmospheric CO2 across the Earth.

NASA's OCO undergoing development prior to launch
NASA developed the Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite to make precise measurements of atmospheric CO2 across the Earth. (NASA/JPL), Author provided

In 2009, OCO was lost due to a launch problem. After sustained advocacy for a rebuild of this important climate mission, NASA secured new funding to launch the OCO-2 satellite in 2014 and OCO-3 to the International Space Station in 2019.

The OCO missions were designed to improve our understanding of vegetation’s CO2 absorption, also known as the land carbon sink. But what about fossil fuel CO2 emissions?

A new way to verify CO2 emissions

In 2017, I led a research team that published the first study showing that we can quantify CO2 emissions at the scale of an individual power plant using OCO-2 observations.

Since OCO-2 was not designed for this purpose, its coverage and infrequent visits were inadequate for operational global CO2 emission monitoring, but we can still quantify emissions in select cases when the satellite passes close enough and gets a good cloud-free view.

OCO-3 is very similar to OCO-2, but has an additional pointing mirror that enables it to better map CO2 around targets of interest like the Bełchatów Power Station in Poland, Europe’s largest fossil fuel burning power plant and CO2 source.

A Power Station
Bełchatów Power Station, Europe’s largest fossil fuel burning power plant. (Shutterstock)

With ten clear views of CO2 emission plumes from Bełchatów imaged by OCO-2 and OCO-3 from 2017-2022 analyzed in our new study, we were able to determine emissions on those days.

European power plants report hourly power generation but only annual CO2 emissions. Power generation fluctuates with electricity demand and generating unit shutdowns (for maintenance or decommissioning) and CO2 emissions are expected to exhibit proportional fluctuations.

We confirmed this using OCO-2 and OCO-3 in our recent paper, which showed that satellite observations can track changes in facility-level CO2 emissions. This means that satellites can be used to verify (or refute) reported CO2 emission reductions that result from climate change mitigation — like mandated efficiency improvements, carbon capture and storage technology, etc.

OCO-3 observations of a CO2 emission plume from the Bełchatów Power Station in Poland on April 10, 2020 overlaid on Google Earth imagery.
A plume of high CO2 resulting from coal burning is evident down wind from the Bełchatów Power Station in OCO-3 observations. (Ray Nassar), Author provided

Emissions monitoring for the Paris Agreement

Our approach can be applied to more power plants or modified for CO2 emissions from cities or countries with OCO-2 and OCO-3. We can also try integrating the satellite observations with CO2 monitoring from the ground or aircraft.

While we are already working on this, advances will only be incremental until the launch of the European Commission-funded Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring Mission or “CO2M”. CO2M is comprised of two satellites, aiming to launch in late 2025.

These satellites will provide about 50 times as much coverage as OCO-2 and OCO-3 combined and will form the space component of Europe’s system for CO2 emissions Monitoring, Verification and Support (MVS).

CO2M will be a major advance, but just like successful global climate action, requires contributions from many countries. The long-term robust operational global monitoring of GHG emissions will need a constellation of satellites contributed by multiple countries as part of an integrated global observing system.

Hopefully, with new, more detailed and transparent tracking of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions to assess and guide us toward the most effective policies, society can achieve the emission reductions needed to reach net-zero in time.

Ray Nassar, Research Scientist at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), Adjunct Professor in Atmospheric Physics, University of Toronto

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

The Future of The Internet Radio Hobbyist


This year there has a been a twist in the Pro’s and Internet Radio Broadcasters  story. The once Reliable and Affordable Licensing company named Stream Licensing stopped paying ASCAP and there has been talk of them not reporting info to other PROs such as B.M.I.and Sound exchange. They claim the ASCAP issue is due to overpayment and they stopped paying them due to such, to me this is irresponsible and is a disservice to the clients they represent.  They are Doing some nice dodging and weaving through emails promising things that are not realistic such as buying a radio station which they owned for some time prior and that is not licensed and talking about  ownership options etc.

I have read a post stating a former SL client filing complaints to the Law officials in Florida and some complaints possibly going to the FCC as well about the situation. Do I think Streamlicensing.com part of Stardom Media is being fraudulent? I can not tell you since there is always more to the story than you can find. But I do find it quite unethical to not pay the ASCAP fees and not let us know when they began doing so, they waited almost 6 to 8 months before notifying us and it was mainly due to ASCAP sending out emails.

Ok That said at the moment I would suggest avoiding SL until they get their records and licensing in order. This only leaves most of us hobbyists with a few options, paying ascap directly and forking out 200+ dollars.(outside of my budget) Moving to live365.com and be very restricted far as how you can listen to the music (all web based no direct link for Media Players etc.) and pay about the same amount and have to go with their broadcast servers, Radionomy which is a pain to keep going and you must meet quotas to keep the station up along with they are only web based or app. based in the USA. Then the next to last option of playing only Creative Commons Music, which I love but it limits what listener base  you will receive.

The only 2 options left are Closing down the Station or go through the painstaking process of contacting each record company, artists etc. to get a waiver to play their music. Their may be many artists who would sign waivers to keep their exposure up via the internet streaming since mainstream radio stations don’t play them often since they are not the popular bands or of the popular genres.

The thing is I went legal out of my desire to not only be legit but to support those artists, songwriters etc. they do deserve money for their works, but the amount that we must pay in internet streaming is quite high, and since advertisers are not too willing to support internet streams unless they are owned by some big media corp. etc. it makes it hard to even make any revenue to offset the cost of playing the music we all love.

I think one thing that really makes me mad is how many PRO’s there is and how complicated it is to get covered and to be legal, you would think that they would get together and form a one stop  shop for licensing and make it affordable and a monthly payment.  They would have more on board being legal for one thing and they wouldn’t have issues like they are at the moment with such places like Stream Licensing.

Now I Call out for Artists, Songwriters, Composers and Record companies to get into the game and try to find a solution that can help the broadcasters within the new media category become the new way to get artists exposure and raise capitol along with making it an affordable venture for the small broadcasters. There must be some way all the PRO’s and those associated with the Music industry can work together and find a way to make it good for all of us involved.

I really Hope Stream Licensing gets their act together and do what is right by their clients, after this month I may just move on to live365, play Creative Commons Licensed music  or  Even kill the station . Sad But its a Fact of life when your just a guppy in a ocean of sharks and whales I guess.

Feel free to leave comments on the Stream Licensing situation as well as the options out there for the little guppy broadcasters 😀

God Bless

Raymond Barbier

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apeo: Generating a Hassle-free Online Poll


Have you ever find it hard to understand and know the impulse of the majority? Let’s say you have a study or you just simply need to know what people actually like or not.

If you have been pondering or searching for ways to get a quick result from surveying a certain group or your readers, I have something to recommend for you.

It’s simple, hassle-free, and will provide a surely quick result. Still, as technology continues to improve our daily lives, we can use an online poll to quickly understand and get the voice of the majority.

And for you to create an effective, stylish and eye-catching online poll, you can generate it through Apeo which guarantee a user-friendly experience of generating polls to suit your subject or audience.

You can generate an online poll through their site or download their iOS app.

The following are the simple and easy steps to generate poll:

apeo

Apeo allows you to ask your readers anything and get a quick feedback from your on-going platforms simultaneously while giving you the choice between spreading the word and a more targeted approach. The answers are anonymous so you know you’re getting them right. You can quickly discover the majority’s viewpoint on a certain issue and learn how your readers/followers view and feel on any given topic.

 

Here is the sample of online poll made through Apeo:

http://app.apeo.co/2k7m5nc

http://app.apeo.co/2k7m5nc

To all my readers, I invite you to answer the poll. It’s quick and easy. You just need to click your answer and you’ll remain anonymous.

Apeo

Starting a internet radio station for free


Starting your own internet radio station is pretty simple now days and there are several ways to do so. You can broadcast directly from your pc using shoutcast and winamp, pay for a shoutcast server with a auto DJ and last but not least you can create a free account at radionomy.

In future posts I shall cover more of the other methods of starting a internet radio station, in this post I am going to focus on radionomy. Radionomy is not only a free way to start r listen to internet radio,  Radionomy is now the owner of Shoutcast and Winamp. For a free platform they provide a pretty good scheduling system within their radio manager. You can upload 1000 files to start with for you radio and they also have music available from their own catalog . The best part is Radionomy takes responsibility for the licensing required to be a legal broadcast. That’s right no worries about the copyright police knocking on your door.

“Radionomy is a free groundbreaking platform that is changing the way people from around the world create, discover, and listen to Internet radio. Radionomy provides everyone from artist and celebrities to professional broadcasters and music lovers with the tools and infrastructure to create, broadcast, promote and monetize their own online radio stations completely free of charge”

radionomy1-370x220

Click logo above to visit Radionomy.com

Starting a internet radio station for free was originally published on RJB Networks

create animate me code breakdown


create animate me 1. 1 1 5000,astart;adone visible testwall no

  • create: this is the trigger, meaning that all code after it will be applied as soon as it loads.
  • animate: this is the action core, telling AW to expect animate-related syntax to follow.
  • me: this tells AW to apply the following code to the object which the code was written on. You could change this to the name of an object, but there’s really no reason to.
  • 1.: this is our dummy texture used in the so-called texture animation. You could use any texture for this, or none at all. If you use no texture, it would simply be a period, however this gives errors in the chat for people with error printing enabled, so I typically leave this to 1, which is actually a texture in the Alpahworld texture path.
  • 1 1: these two numbers are used in the texture animation. We’re not doing a texture animation, so leave these numbers alone.

All the code up to this point is the foundation, and is pretty much never changed. For all practical purposes, your AAA code will always start out with create animate me 1. 1 1

  • 5000: this is the delay in milliseconds, an important number. The delay is the length of time that occurs between when the object is loaded, and when the adone trigger will initiate. If you fired a missile and wanted something to happen after five seconds, then you’d use 5000.

At this point, all animate arguments are given, so we end it with a comma.

  • astart: this is also important, so pay attention. If you include astart here, then the animation’s delay will start its countdown as soon as the object loads. If you do not include it, the delay will wait for something to start it. You would not include the astart if you wanted a button to activate the AAA scripts.

We now add a semicolon because we’re going to move onto the next trigger – adone.

  • adone: as explained earlier, adone is a trigger, and AW will trigger it when the dummy texture animation is done playing. Just like create, all code following it will only occur once its been triggered.

At this point, any sort of action can be applied. This guide assumes you already know how to work with basic actions.

In our example, once AW loads the object containing the AAA script we made, a 5 second countdown will start, and when done, it triggers the adone section of code, which removes visibility from an object given the name testwall.

For More Info and Examples Read Original Article at SW City Builders Academy Click image Below

create animate me code breakdown was originally published on RJB Networks